Top Five Reasons Why You Need a Will

by Toni Nieuwhof

“Oh yeah, I need to make that appointment.”  I hear this so frequently from successful people who generally have made sound financial choices.  Let’s face it – it’s difficult to conjure up a sense of urgency about a future event – death – one that we expect is half a lifetime or decades away.  Why do you need to have a will now?

Let’s start with a fictitious case.  You have been separated from your spouse for 3 years.  Once it was clear there was no turning back, you moved on and are now in a stable relationship.  You’re living together but there’s no divorce and you’re undecided whether or not your current relationship will lead to marriage.  You adore your 2 teenage children who live with you and both have promising academic prospects. 

If you passed away at this point without a will, the Succession Law Reform Act of Ontario determines that your legal spouse will receive the first $200,000.00 of your estate.  Your current partner may or may not be entitled to raise a claim for support from your estate.  Your children will inherit 2/3 and your legal spouse 1/3 of whatever is left over. Whether or not your estate will be available to support your teenagers through their post-secondary education will be up in the air.

This leads to the 5 top reasons you need to have a will executed:

1.  You, and not the default law of your region, will determine who receives which share of your estate.  It is wise to obtain legal advice about who your depend ants are, and therefore who would have legitimate claims for support from your estate.

2. If you have sole custody of your children, then you will have the right to determine who will assume custody in your place for the first 90 days if you pass away.  Your choice will likely be influential in the judge’s decision, but the ultimate order for ongoing custody rests with a judge who decides what is in the best interests of the children involved.  You might want to write a letter explaining how your choice meets the legal tests the judge would have to consider.

3. You will have the opportunity to appoint a trustee to hold the designated portion of your estate, and to make decisions about how funds are allocated to your children before they reach a certain age.  For example, you may decide it would not be in your children's’ best interests to receive a large inheritance at the age of 19.  The funds may be controlled by someone you trust to make those decisions until they have reached a certain age such as 25.

4. You will have the opportunity to plan to minimize your estate’s tax exposure.

5. You will be able to thoughtfully appoint someone, or more than one person you trust, to wrap up your estate.  A lot of confusion and extra burdens at an emotionally difficult time are avoided if you get consent from the people you wish to appoint in advance.

In most cases, for less than the amount you would spend on a car repair or new furniture, you can take care of these questions by consulting with a lawyer about your will.  Although the chances of an early, tragic end to your life are small, your loved ones will be grateful for your advance planning.

We have two lawyers at Galbraith Family Law Professional Corporation who draft Wills for clients. Both Anna Preston and Merv White can assist you with the preparation of your Will. If you like to learn more, please contact our office to set up an Initial Consultation. Merv is in Newmarket at (289) 319-0634 and Anna is in both our Barrie office (705) 727-4242 and Orillia office (705) 418-0901. Go to our website to learn more about our firm. 


This blog was written by Toni Nieuwhof, a lawyer with Galbraith Family Law Professional Corporation. Toni enthusiastically helps families transition through separations and divorces. She is known for her excellent analytical skills as well as her persuasive writing and oratory skills. More than just being a great lawyer, she is a great person. As the mother of two grown children, she cherishes family and helping her clients work through their challenges efficiently and cost-effectively. 
Call Toni for an Initial Consultation at (705) 727-4242. 
 

Smart Divorce Options

people wonder... what are my options for divorce?

Most separations and divorces are stressful and painful. You can choose to make it better or worse by the process you choose to use. The following are your choices. 

 

Collaborative Practice

Collaborative Practice is a future-focused, efficient, cost-effective, creative, problem-solving process. It is not about fighting or finding blame. With the help of professionals, you work together to find a unique resolution that meets the core concerns of both you and your spouse. You will find a resolution to the issues through a series of meetings. You’ll get the expert help and information you need to make the best decisions. You will not go to family court. It he hard work but in the end you will have the help you need to negotiate a fair deal that works over the long term. Even

 the most complicated cases can be resolved through the Collaborative Process. In most cases, Collaborative Practice is the best way to minimize the cost and pain of divorce normally associated with the court process. 

Mediation

A neutral third party will help you negotiate the terms of an agreement that works for your whole family. You will review the agreement with your lawyer prior to signing a legally binding separation agreement. Mediation works for many families but some prefer Collaborative Process where your lawyer is present throughout the negotiations. If the issues are less complicated and you just need a bit of help to negotiate an agreement, mediation is an excellent choice. 

Lawyer to Lawyer Negotiations

Negotiations are better than litigation. Lawyer negotiations often result in an agreement. Some negotiations are conducted by an exchange of emails or letters, but we sometimes have four way meetings to discuss the issues face-to-face. In Collaborative Practice cases, there is a commitment that the case will not go to court but this is not so with case negotiated by lawyers. It is possible for the case to end up in court if resolution is not achieved during lawyer to lawyer negotiations. Family court is the place of last resort. It is  slow, costly, difficult to predict and you are giving the power to decide the issues to the judge. So, we like Collaborative Practice more than lawyer negotiations because of the risk of landing in court. 

Arbitration

The court process and arbitration are similar. The difference is in arbitration, the parties and their lawyers choose the arbitrator (who has the powers of a judge) and determine the procedure.  As a result, in arbitration closure is achieved which most clients welcome. The problem with arbitration is that you are giving the arbitrator the right to decide your case and it must be based only on the law. A more creative solution that meets the core concerns cannot be considered if it deviates from the law. Arbitration is better than going to family court but it is very expensive and you are giving the power to make important decisions about your life to the arbitrator.

Family Court

Family court is a last place we recommend cases be resolved. Most clients complain that it is an expensive process. It is often slow and how the judge will decide the case is difficult to predict. The adversarial nature of the court process often increases the level of animosity between you and your spouse. The judge will make decisions about your family based on the law without regard to your core concerns. The judge simply is not allowed to be creative. We regularly help clients by representing them in the court process but we do our best to keep you out of court if possible. 

Next Step For You

Now that you know some of the basic process choices, you should contact our office and book a consultation with one or our lawyers. We can help you determine which process is the best one for you. Whatever process you choose, we will help you all the way through to resolution.

 

Post-Secondary Education and Child Support

Does child support end when a child reach age 18 years? Our lawyer Lynn Kirwin answers this question in detail. 

The courts have recognized that financial dependency does not end upon a child turning 18.  Under the Divorce act and the Family Law Act there is no upper age limit under which support automatically terminates. As a result, child support may extend beyond the age of 18 years of age. 

“Child” under the Family Law Act for child support purposes includes an adult child who has not voluntarily withdrawn from parental control and is enrolled in a full time program of education.

"Child of the Marriage," as defined by the Divorce Act, includes children over 16 who are still pursuing their education, including post-secondary education. 
 
The Child Support Guidelines do not provide any termination of child support when a child reaches a certain age rather child support is payable for a child that is over 18 years old as long as that child is in full time school attendance.
 
Most courts have followed a flexible approach to the determination of what constitutes a full-time program of education. A full-time program does not necessarily mean full-time attendance at school. A child can be found to be enrolled in a full-time program of education while taking less than a full course load, so long as his or her participation is meaningful and consistent with the program's purposes and objectives. It is not uncommon for university students to require an additional school term to complete the necessary credits to obtain a degree. This does not necessarily disentitle them to support under the Family Law Act. They are still in the process of completing a full-time educational program. A full-time educational program does not necessarily equate to requiring a full-time course load each term. The additional time that a student might have available to them to work part-time (as a result of not having a full course load) can be a factor in determining whether the guideline amount is appropriate and what the appropriate amount of support should be. The entitlement to support is not automatic. The court must be satisfied that the educational plan is reasonable in terms of the child's abilities; that it meets the plans and expectations of the parents in regard to the child's post-secondary education; and that it is within the needs and means of the child and the parents. 
 
A hiatus in studies does not necessarily end the obligation to pay child support.  A child who has withdrawn from his studies may be reinstated to his support entitlement by bringing himself back within the definition of “Child of the Marriage” under the Divorce Act or “Child” under the Family law Act.. If the child was enrolled in a transitional program then the parent may not be relieved from paying support. For example if there is a transition time where the child finishes high school and starting university and he/she continued in school to upgrade high school credits and worked part-time then this would constitute a transitional program and Child Support Guidelines Table amount may be appropriate.
In cases involving child support for second and third degrees, the court will consider the financial circumstances of the family, the ability of the child to contribute to his post-secondary education expenses, the child's education and career plans, the child's age, the child's academic performance, the family's educational expectations, the parents involvement in the decision making process, the accountability of the child, and the extent to which the program prepares the child to become financially independent.
 
Most courts now find the guideline amount inappropriate when a child attends university out-of-town and only returns home during the summer and school breaks. Although each case must be examined on its own facts, most courts will order the full table amount in the months the child is living at home with a lesser amount when the child is away at school. Providing the court with evidence of the costs required to maintain a home for a child who is away at university is important in cases of this nature.
 
The Child Support Guidelines provides that for children over 18 years the table amounts are presumptively applicable unless the court considers that approach inappropriate. Where a child attends university away from home and only spends the summer and other vacation times with a parent, some reduction of the table amount of child support is used and the child's post-secondary expenses are treated as extraordinary expenses. The expenses are shared by the parents with some contribution by the child. A base amount of support recognizes the primary resident’s obligation to pay for the upkeep of a home used by the child during vacations and the summer months. 
 
In addition to basic child support, the court can order the sharing of a child's post-secondary education expenses. Such expenses include reasonable costs for tuition, accommodation, meals and groceries, cellphone, books, etc.. The court will take into consideration that adult child has an obligation to contribute towards their own costs of study.  The amount of a special expense is shared by the parents or spouses in proportion to their respective incomes after deducting from the expense the contribution, if any, from the child.  Most courts are reluctant to allow the payor parent to avoid child support obligations by requiring that the child rely on student loans, since student loans are just costs that must be repaid when the child finishes school. 
 
A student loan is not a "benefit" within the meaning of the Child Support Guidelines. Student loans are not to be equated with bursaries, grants, or scholarships. The adult child should not be inordinately saddled with a huge student loan, particularly in light of each parents’ financial circumstances. As well, the courts will not require a student to contribute all of his or her earnings to their post-secondary expenses and may order a certain percentage of contribution of these earnings towards their post-secondary expenses. 
 
It is also important to note that, despite the terms of a separation agreement that support terminates when a child completes his or her first undergraduate degree or becomes 23 years of age, the court may determine it is not bound by this term.  Child support is the right of the child and cannot be bargained away by a recipient parent to the detriment of the child.
 
photograph of brian galbraithLynn Kirwin has authored a number of books dealing with family law issues. Lynn uses her academic aptitude to be a strong advocate for clients going through a separation or divorce. She also represents children in divorce on behalf of the Office of the Children's Lawyer and privately. Lynn can be reached at Lynn@GalbraithFamilyLaw.com or by calling her at 705 727-4242. 
 
Visit our website to learn more about our lawyers and  to book a consultation. 

How to Get an Annulment of Your Marriage in Ontario

Obtaining an annulment of your marriage means a judge has declared that your marriage was not valid from the start. It is extremely rare. Most marriages in Ontario end in a divorce.

You may be able to obtain an annulment if you did not have the capacity to marry such as being married already to someone else, being so intoxicated you did not know what you were doing, being a minor,  being forced into marriage by reason of fraud or duress, or lacking the mental capacity. 

The more common reason for an annulment is if the marriage was not consummated. That means that you did not have sexual intercourse together after marriage. For example, if your new "spouse" is unable to have sexual intercourse and you did not know of their incapacity before marriage, you can seek an order that the marriage be annulled. 

Marriages of convenience such as those entered into for immigration purposes will not be annulled simply because of the motive. You need to prove a lack of capacity to enter into the marriage or the fact that it was not consummated. 

Although you may not be able to obtain an annulment through the court system in Ontario, you may be eligible for a religious annulment. You will need to consult with your religious leader regarding a religious annulment. Even if you obtain a religious annulment, it does not mean you will necessarily receive a civil one. You may have to obtain a divorce through the court system. 

If you have circumstances where you think you might be able to obtain an annulment, start the process by contacting our office and having a consultation with one of our lawyers. We can help you determine whether an annulment is possible or if you have to use the more traditional process of obtaining a divorce. 

Should I Spy on My Soon-to-be Ex?

We often hear clients say things like the following....

“Last night, I searched through Anne’s emails on her computer, and this is what I found...”  

“I found these letters between Frank and his lawyer...”

“I installed spyware on Sue’s computer, and I’ve been recording her phone calls to Holly and Aiden, and you should hear them...”

Our lawyer Toni Nieuwhof offers some advice about whether you should be spying on your spouse. Here is Toni's blog: 

In today’s electronic age, when a marriage deteriorates into battle, these are typical things people say to their family lawyers.  Most families are surrounded by various  electronic devices with  passwords  that are shared or easily guessed.  There is a strong temptation to take matters into one’s hand by secretly collecting evidence.   Most are not aware that there could be legal consequences associated with accessing private information or conversations.  A recent case known as Jones v. Tsige provides one example of the possible consequences of invasion of privacy.

In this case, the ex-wife examined the banking records of the current partner of her ex-husband, as both of the women worked at the same bank.  The banking records were accessed 174 times by Ms. Tsige, without Ms. Jones’ knowledge or consent.  The reason Ms. Tsige gave for examining the bank records was apparently to find out whether support payments were being made by the ex-husband to the Ms. Jones.  Although there was no money lost and none of the banking records were published, copied or stolen, the Ontario Court of Appeal awarded damages to Ms. Jones simply because her privacy had been wrongly invaded.  This ruling was not based on a breach of privacy legislation, but simply on the common law expectation of privacy under a new heading. 

In order to sue a spouse for this new privacy invasion known at law as “intrusion upon seclusion”, the following must be proven by the one making the claim:

That the other person’s action was intentional, which may include recklessness;

That the other person invaded private affairs or concerns without lawful justification; and

That a reasonable person would regard the invasion as highly offensive, causing distress, humiliation or anguish.

The Court of Appeal wrote that damages for this type of privacy invasion, without proof of financial harm to the one whose privacy was invaded, could justify an award of $20,000.

Judges are increasingly faced with information collected from social media, text and email messages, and so on, but are also called upon to make rulings where a party claims their privacy was invaded or a criminal offence occurred in collecting the evidence.  While it is okay to collect account statements or financial records that one has access to, following activities may put you at risk:

- Snooping through the private letters or computer records of your spouse; 

- Accessing or copying correspondence between your spouse and his or her lawyer; 

- Installing spyware or secretly recording conversations (these are criminal offences).

Check with your lawyer first if you have any questions about collecting evidence for your family law matter. Taking matters into your own hands may make your separation more messy than you expected. 

Toni Nieuwhof has a passion for family law and helping her clients navigate through the challenges of a separation or divorce.

Toni's attention to detail, articulate and persuasive writing style and her sharp whit make Toni an excellent advocate. 

You can reach Toni at Toni@GalbraithFamilyLaw.com or call her at 705 727-4242.  

Visit our website for more information about our lawyers. 

How to Resolve Your Separation or Divorce

Most clients have three goals: They want: 

1. A peaceful and fair resolution; 

2. A resolution achieved as soon as possible; and, 

3. To keep their financial and emotional costs to a minimum. 

Are these your goals too? 

When I went through my own divorce, I shared these goals. I too wanted to achieve a fair resolution in a timely manner and cost-effectively. As a result, our law firm treats our clients the way we would like to be treated if we were in your shoes. We help our clients achieve their goals. 

Generally, there are three steps to resolution regardless of the process you choose. 

First, you exchange the facts. Regarding property and support issues, this means exchanging proof of your assets, debts and incomes. Regarding parenting, you share your history of parenting roles, your future plans for the care of your children and other relevant facts. 

Second, you need to negotiate a resolution. If you go to court, the judge may make some decisions but 97% of court cases are eventually settled by negotiations. If you are in Collaborative Practice you will share your core concerns and work to find a resolution that meets the core concerns of both parties. 

Third, you need to put the agreement into a legally binding form.  If you are in court, you will obtain a court order usually on consent. If you are out of court, you will sign a Separation Agreement. 

There are six processes available to you. All of the processes include an exchange of facts, negotiations and creating a legally binding document. The best process for you depends on your circumstances. The process choices are as follows: 

1) Kitchen Table: You and your spouse negotiate an agreement on your own. You then bring the terms of agreement to us. To make it legally binding, you still need to exchange disclosure. We can then create a legally binding separation agreement. Both spouses obtain independent legal advice before signing the agreement. This process works well if the issues are simple and your level of cooperation is high. It is the least costly process. 

2) Mediation: You and your spouse work with an neutral third party who assists you to negotiate an agreement. Prior to commencing the mediation, you exchange financial disclosure. The mediator is neutral so cannot offer legal advice or express an opinion; the mediator assists you with negotiations. Once an agreement is reached, each party will receive independent legal advice and one of the lawyers will create a separation agreement. Mediation is a great process if you are willing to negotiate an agreement without your lawyer at your side and the issues are not too complicated. It is a cost-effective and efficient process.  

3) Collaborative Practice: You and your spouse each retain your own lawyer and commit to negotiating an agreement without going to court.  You jointly retain a family coach and a financial specialist so as to minimize your legal costs. The family coach will help you navigate through the emotional issues and develop a parenting plan. The financial specialist will help you exchange disclosure and resolve the financial issues expeditiously and cost-effectively.

The Collaborative Process is able to handle all levels of conflict and complexities. It is much more cost-effective than the court process and results in better, longer-lasting settlements. You keep control over the decisions being made and work together to find resolutions that meet the core concerns of both parties. At the end of the negotiations, you sign a Separation Agreement. 

4) Lawyer Negotiations:  You and your spouse each retain lawyers. Through the lawyers, you exchange disclosure and attempt to negotiate an agreement, eventually signing a Separation Agreement hopefully. The problem with lawyer negotiations is that there is no commitment to staying out of court. If your case settles, it is cost-effective. Often these cases end up in court which is very costly, slow and unpredictable. 

5) Arbitration: You and your spouse each retain lawyers. You also jointly retain an arbitrator who is usually a senior lawyer. S/he is empowered to make decisions regarding your case just like a judge would do. The advantage to this process over court is that you can choose the arbitrator and you can stream line the process. The disadvantage is that you are empowering the arbitrator to make decisions affecting you and your family forever. 

6) Family Court: You and your spouse each retain lawyers. You will usually attend court on several occasions before it is resolved. The Court Process can take 1 to 3 years to resolve. It is the most costly process and pits you and your spouse against each other. A Court battle can be harmful to you and your children. If you want to find a peaceful and fair resolution, in a timely manner and cost-effectively, you should avoid the court process. At Galbraith Family Law, we consider Family Court the place of last resort. If no other process works, we will represent you in court. 

Conclusion

At Galbraith Family Law Professional Corporation, we have experienced lawyers and clerks who are focused on helping you achieve a fair and peaceful resolution to your divorce and separation. We do so as quickly as possible while keeping the financial and emotional costs to a minimum. We can represent you in any process you choose and help you achieve your goals. 

We treat you the way we would like to be treated.

Please visit our website  to learn more and book a consultation with one of our lawyers. 

Uncontested Divorce: How To Get Yours

Obtaining a uncontested divorce is the final step in the dissolution of your marriage.

Usually we resolve all of the issues of your divorce including issues related to the children (custody and access), child support, spousal support and property issues before we proceed with the divorce. We settle these issues in a separation agreement or, if necessary, obtain a resolution through the court process. 

A divorce can only be granted by a judge so it requires the completion of the appropriate court documentation, serving them on your spouse and filing them at court.. You won't have to appear in court to obtain an uncontested divorce. Many people consider doing their own divorce and find it is too complicated.  As a result, we do many uncontested divorces. 

There are some conditions you must meet before you can proceed with your divorce. 

1) You or your spouse must be living in Ontario and have lived in Ontario for at least one year if you want to obtain a divorce in Ontario.

2) You also have to file the documents in the court located in the area where one of you live. 

3) Another requirement is that there must be an agreement or order to pay the proper level of child support according to the Child Support Guidelines. If the proper amount of child support is not being paid, you will have to explain what other financial benefits are being paid in lieu of child support payments. For example, if the person who ought to be paying child support gives their spouse their equity in the matrimonial home in lieu of paying child support, a judge may allow the divorce to proceed. 

Some people resolve all their divorce-related issues without completing the divorce. I remember one fellow who was about to get married and then realized he was still married. We had to rush through his divorce so he could tie the knot again.

The benefit of completing the divorce now is the sense of closure you will feel when you have it in hand. Our clients often return to complete the divorce when they start dating again. New romantic partners may be repelled by the fact that you are still married. Obtaining a divorce takes six to nine months to complete so you don't want to wait until it becomes an issue in your new relationship. 

If you would like us to assist you with your divorce, please contact us. We can help.

How Do Fathers (or Mothers) Get Custody of their Children?

There is a myth that fathers never get custody. This myth is based on the historic fact that most children traditionally were raised by mothers and that fathers were the bread-winners. As a result, in those days, it made sense that the courts assumed it was in the best interests of the children to be primarily in the care of the mother.

Now, many families have two bread-winners and two caregivers;  mom and dad share in both responsibilities. As a result, the courts in Ontario are more inclined to determine that an equal time sharing regime makes sense for families in which both parents are equally involved in child care.

If you are a father and want to have custody of your child, you need to prove that it is in the child's best interests to be in your care. A strong argument for you having custody is if you can prove that historically you have been the primary caregiver and that you are willing and able to continue to provide the care your child deserves. 

Custody court battles are nasty, take a lot of time to resolve and cost thousands of dollars. Often it is the children who suffer most from a court battle. We prefer to help our clients negotiate a settlement using a process called Collaborative Practice. This is a way to resolve your parenting issues and other separation-related issues with the help of professionals so as to minimize the impact on your children and keep costs down. 

We help both fathers and mothers resolve parenting issues every day. If you would like a consultation with one our lawyers, please click here. We can help. 

What is the Difference between Joint Custody and Sole Custody

The term custody refers to how parents make decisions for their children. Joint Custody means that the major decisions are made by the parents together. Sole custody means that one parent makes the major decisions. If the other parent has sole custody, you have a legal right to access information about your children from caregivers, health care professionals and educators but you don't have the ability to give them instructions regarding your child. If you share joint custody, both parents need to make decisions together and instruct caregivers, health care professionals, educators and anyone else involved in your child's care together.

A common mistake is thinking that Joint Custody means the children are with both parents about an equal amount of time. The term used to describe an equal time sharing of the children is "Shared Custody". "Joint versus Sole Custody" is not about how much time the children spend with each parent but rather how decisions are made. 

Day-to-day decisions related to the care of your child are made by the parent in whose care the child is at the time. Only "major" decisions are governed by the "joint or sole" designation. For example, major decisions related to health care, spiritual upbringing, education are made together. Of course, deciding which decisions are "major" can sometimes be a source of conflict. 

If you are unable to make a decision together, you can try working with a mediator to resolve the issue or you can go to court. A third option is to hire an Parenting Coach to help you work out a resolution. A Parenting Coach can work with you to resolve the issue without going to Court. Unlike a mediator who must remain neutral, a Parenting Coach can offer advice as to how best resolve the issue for the sake of your children. 

The Courts of Ontario tend to assume it is in the best interests of the children that both parents are involved in decision-making but if there is clear evidence that joint custody would result in the children being in the middle of constant arguing and fighting they will order sole custody. 

When you need help determining custody issues, please contact us for a consultation. We are here to help. 

 

How To Reduce Stress for Children of Divorce

Daily structure and routine can help your children feel more secure.

Children often find school stressful.  Add to that the anxiety and worries of a recent separation and it can be a very difficult time for children. 

Giving your children a solid foundation of daily activities can help alleviate stress, anxiety and help with the psychological well-being of both parents and children alike. 

Create a time table for your children so they know the routine. It may include getting ready for school, doing homework, personal time, transportation to and from each parent’s home, special activities such as organized sports and taking time just to be together. Set aside time for fun activities like a board games, sports and just hanging out together.

The bedtime routine might include taking a bath, brushing teeth and reading books.  As long as it is consistent and predictable, it will give your child a sense of security.

Even though your teenage children may resist you imposing a routine on them, they will benefit from some structure and routine in their day. You just might not get thanked for imposing it on them.

For some children, it is helpful is to let your children know in advance where they will be and what they will be doing in the future.

I used to post on the fridge a calendar showing “mommy days” and “daddy days”. I also inserted special activities such as their sports and special family events, birthdays and other activities on the calendar.

I remember finding a copy of the schedule in my son’s pocket one day. He said it made him feel better just being able to know what was happening next.  

Often during separation children demand a lot of attention from their parents. Give them the time they need. You likely have to share your time with the other parent so focus on your children when they are with you.

You can also normalize your child’s anxiety and fears. Let them know that it is okay to feel bad some days. It will get better one day.

If your children are really struggling, you may need to get them help of a Child Specialist who can offer your children individualized therapy and professional support.

Providing routine, consistency and letting your children know what is coming next will help to decrease their anxiety and fears.  Of course, if you ask your children they might suggest some ice cream will help too. Not a bad idea.  

Our lawyers can answer your questions about how to reduce your stress. Book a consultation today